Three years ago I wrote a column about someone I was astonished I’d never heard of until that week: Venetia Phair (née Burney), at the time an 87-year-old retired schoolteacher in Epsom, England.
At the age of 11 Venetia suggested the name Pluto for what was then (and for many decades after) considered the ninth and outermost planet of the solar system. (In 2006 it was officially downgraded to a “dwarf planet.”)
Venetia died on April 30 at the age of 90. In her honour, here’s her story again, drawn from a January 2006 interview with Edward Goldstein of NASA Public Affairs, in honor of the then-impending launch of the New Horizons spacecraft, now en route to a 2015 fly-past of Pluto.
“I think it was on March 14, 1930, and I was having breakfast with my mother and my grandfather,” Venetia said. “And my grandfather read out at breakfast the great news (of the discovery of Pluto) and said he wondered what it would be called. And for some reason, I after a short pause, said, ‘Why not call it Pluto?’”
Venetia explained that she was familiar with Greek and Roman legends from various children’s books and also knew the names of the other planets. “I suppose I just thought that this was a name that hadn’t been used. And there it was.”
Of course, lots of children say clever things over the breakfast table, but their bon mots don’t usually make it onto a map of the heavens. That’s because most children don’t have as their grandfather Falconer Madan, a retired librarian of Oxford University’s famous Bodleian Library. Madan, impressed by Venetia’s suggestion, dropped by the house of Herbert Hall Turner, a friend of his and a professor of astronomy at Oxford.
Ironically, Turner wasn’t home: he was at a meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society in London, where everyone was wondering what the new planet would be called. When Turner finally heard the suggestion from Madan, he thought it such an excellent name that he sent a telegram to astronomer Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, where the planet had been discovered. On May 1, 1930, the name Pluto was formally adopted.
Tombaugh and his colleagues apparently liked the name not only because it was one of the few notable names from classical mythology that had yet to be used but also because the first two letters were the initials of the late Percival Lowell—after whom the Lowell Observatory was named, and who, along with William Pickering, had predicted the existence of a planet outside Neptune’s orbit, but never saw it.
Madan awarded Venetia a five-pound note. “As a grandfather, he liked to have an excuse for generosity,” Venetia told the BBC. She also made sure the BBC knew that Disney’s cartoon dog named Pluto had nothing to do with her suggestion: “People were repeatedly saying: ‘Ah, she named it after Pluto the dog’. It has now been satisfactorily proven that the dog was named after the planet, rather than the other way round. So, one is vindicated.”
The launch of the New Horizons mission probably got Venetia more publicity than she received all those years ago. “I think the newspapers were mostly occupied by the exploits of the woman pilot Amy Johnson (the first woman to fly solo from Britain to Australia) at the time,” she told NASA. “My grandfather collected any information there was through a press agency and put it into two scrapbooks that I have, which I treasure.”
In addition to the long-spent five-pound note from her grandfather, Venetia has received a badge from Johns Hopkins University and had an asteroid and a scientific instrument named after her. But she’s never seen the planet she named, although she has visited the Lowell Observatory and saw the telescope through which Tombaugh first saw Pluto.
And if you’ve never heard of Venetia Phair yourself until now, well, even people who knew her personally seldom knew the full story.
As she told NASA, “On the whole, it doesn’t arise in conversation, and you don’t just go around telling people that you named Pluto.”